John Wayne est un Acteur, Réalisateur, Scénariste, Producteur et Maitre de propriété Américain né le 26 mai 1907 à Winterset (Etats-Unis)
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Nom de naissance Marion Michael MorrisonNationalité Etats-UnisNaissance 26 mai 1907
à Winterset (Etats-Unis
)Mort 11 juin 1979
(à 72 ans) à Los Angeles (Etats-Unis
)Fondateur de Batjac ProductionsRécompenses
Oscar du meilleur acteur, Médaille présidentielle de la liberté
John Wayne, pseudonyme de Marion Morrison, est un acteur, réalisateur et producteur américain né le 26 mai 1907 à Winterset (Iowa) et mort le 11 juin 1979 à Los Angeles.
Au cours de ses cinquante ans de carrière, il a joué dans des films policiers, des films de guerre et quelques comédies romantiques, mais c'est dans ses nombreux westerns que John Wayne s'est réellement imposé, particulièrement sous la direction de deux réalisateurs : John Ford (La Chevauchée fantastique, Le Massacre de Fort Apache, La Charge héroïque, Rio Grande, Le fils du désert , La Prisonnière du désert ou encore L'Homme qui tua Liberty Valance) et Howard Hawks (La Rivière rouge, Rio Bravo, El Dorado ou Rio Lobo). Il a tourné également plusieurs films avec Henry Hathaway dont Cent dollars pour un shérif, qui lui valut en 1970 l'unique Oscar de sa carrière.
En 1960, il est passé derrière la caméra pour réaliser une fresque historique d'envergure, Alamo, relatant les derniers jours de Davy Crockett et ses compagnons lors de la guerre d'indépendance du Texas. Huit ans plus tard, il a coréalisé Les Bérets verts, film engagé justifiant l'intervention américaine au Viêt Nam. Ses deux réalisations ont reflété l'engagement personnel de John Wayne, républicain et ardent patriote.
Classé 13e plus grande star de légende par l'American Film Institute en 1999, John Wayne a été certainement un des acteurs les plus représentatifs du western, une incarnation à lui seul de l'Amérique conquérante. Surnommé « The Duke » (« le Duc »), il reste toujours aujourd'hui, grâce à ses films, le symbole d'une certaine virilité. Il a interprété ce rôle d'homme viril, dur, solitaire et un peu machiste tout au long de sa carrière, ce qui lui fit déclarer : « J'ai joué John Wayne dans tous mes films et ça m'a plutôt pas mal réussi. »
Wayne was married three times and divorced twice. He was fluent in Spanish and his three wives, each of Hispanic descent, were Josephine Alicia Saenz, Esperanza Baur, and Pilar Pallete. He had four children with Josephine: Michael Wayne (November 23, 1934 – April 2, 2003), Mary Antonia "Toni" Wayne LaCava (February 25, 1936 – December 6, 2000), Patrick Wayne (born July 15, 1939), and Melinda Wayne Munoz (born December 3, 1940). He had three more children with Pilar: Aissa Wayne (born March 31, 1956), John Ethan Wayne (born February 22, 1962), and Marisa Wayne (born February 22, 1966).
Several of Wayne's children entered the film and television industry; Wayne's son Ethan was billed as John Ethan Wayne in a few films, and played one of the leads in the 1990s update of the Adam-12 television series.
His stormiest divorce was from Esperanza Baur, a former Mexican actress. She convinced herself that Wayne and co-star Gail Russell were having an affair, a claim which both Wayne and Russell denied. The night the film Angel and the Badman (1947) wrapped, there was the usual party for cast and crew, and Wayne came home very late. Esperanza was in a drunken rage by the time he arrived, and she attempted to shoot him as he walked through the front door.
Wayne had several high-profile affairs, including one with Marlene Dietrich that lasted for three years and one with Merle Oberon that lasted from 1938 to 1947. After his separation from his wife, Pilar, in 1973, Wayne became romantically involved and lived with his former secretary Pat Stacy (1941–1995) until his death in 1979. She published a biography of her life with him in 1983, titled Duke: A Love Story.
Wayne's hair began thinning in the 1940s, and he started wearing a hairpiece by the end of that decade. He was occasionally seen in public without the hairpiece (notably, according to Life magazine, at Gary Cooper's funeral). During a widely noted appearance at Harvard University, Wayne was asked by a student "Where did you get that phony hair?" He responded: "It's not phony. It's real hair. Of course, it's not mine, but it's real."
A close friend of Wayne's, California Congressman Alphonzo Bell, wrote of him, "Duke's personality and sense of humor were very close to what the general public saw on the big screen. It is perhaps best shown in these words he had engraved on a plaque: 'Each of us is a mixture of some good and some not so good qualities. In considering one's fellow man it's important to remember the good things ... We should refrain from making judgments just because a fella happens to be a dirty, rotten SOB.'"
Wayne biographer Michael Munn chronicled Wayne's drinking habits. According to Sam O'Steen's memoir, Cut to the Chase, studio directors knew to shoot Wayne's scenes before noon, because by afternoon he "was a mean drunk". He had been a chain-smoker of cigarettes since young adulthood and was diagnosed with lung cancer in 1964. He underwent successful surgery to remove his entire left lung and four ribs. Despite efforts by his business associates to prevent him from going public with his illness for fear that it would cost him work, Wayne announced he had cancer and called on the public to get preventive examinations. Five years later, Wayne was declared cancer-free. Wayne has been credited with coining the term The Big C as a euphemism for cancer.
Wayne's height has been perennially described as at least 6 ft 4 in (193 cm). He was a Freemason, a Master Mason in Marion McDaniel Lodge No. 56 F&AM, in Tucson, Arizona. He became a 32nd Degree Scottish Rite Mason and later joined the Al Malaikah Shrine Temple in Los Angeles. He became a member of the York Rite. During the early 1960s, John Wayne traveled extensively to Panama, during which he purchased the island of Taborcillo off the main coast. It was sold by his estate at his death and changed hands many times before being opened as a tourist attraction.
Wayne's yacht, the Wild Goose, was one of his favorite possessions. He kept it docked in Newport Harbor and it was listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places in 2011.
Wayne was a prominent Republican in Hollywood, supporting anti-communist positions. Throughout most of his life, Wayne was a vocally prominent conservative Republican. Initially a self-described socialist during his college years, he voted for Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1936 presidential election and expressed admiration for Roosevelt's successor, fellow Democratic President Harry S. Truman. He took part in creating the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals in February 1944 and was elected president of that organization in 1949. An ardent anti-communist and vocal supporter of the House Un-American Activities Committee, in 1952 he made Big Jim McLain to show his support for the anti-communist cause. Recently declassified Soviet documents reveal that, despite being a fan of Wayne's movies, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin contemplated Wayne's assassination as a result of his frequently espoused anti-communist politics.
Wayne supported Vice President Richard Nixon in the presidential election of 1960, but expressed his vision of patriotism when John F. Kennedy won the election: "I didn't vote for him but he's my president, and I hope he does a good job." He used his iconic star power to support conservative causes, including rallying support for the Vietnam War by producing, co-directing, and starring in the critically panned The Green Berets in 1968.
Due to his enormous popularity and his status as the most famous Republican star in Hollywood, wealthy Texas Republican Party backers asked Wayne to run for national office in 1968, as had his friend and fellow actor Senator George Murphy. He declined, joking that he did not believe the public would seriously consider an actor in the White House. Instead, he supported his friend Ronald Reagan's runs for Governor of California in 1966 and 1970. He was asked to be the running mate for Democratic Alabama Governor George Wallace in 1968, but he rejected the offer and actively campaigned for Richard Nixon; Wayne addressed the Republican National Convention on its opening day in August 1968. For a while, he was also a member of the anti-communist John Birch Society.
Wayne openly differed with the Republican Party over the issue of the Panama Canal, as he supported the Panama Canal Treaty in the mid-1970s; conservatives had wanted the U.S. to retain full control of the canal, but Wayne believed that the Panamanians had the right to the canal and sided with President Jimmy Carter and the Democrats. Wayne was a close friend of the late Panamanian leader Omar Torrijos Herrera, and Wayne's first wife, Josephine, was a native of Panama. His support of the treaty brought him hate mail for the first time in his life.
In May 1971, Playboy magazine published an interview with Wayne which resulted in a firestorm of controversy. Wayne expressed his support for the Vietnam War, and made headlines for his resolute opinions about social issues and race relations in the United States:
I believe in white supremacy, until the blacks are educated to a point of responsibility. I don't believe giving authority and positions of leadership and judgment to irresponsible people ... I don't feel we did wrong in taking this great country away from [the Native Americans] ... Our so-called stealing of this country from them was just a matter of survival. There were great numbers of people who needed new land, and the Indians were selfishly trying to keep it for themselves.
In the same Playboy interview, Wayne also responded to questions about whether entitlement programs including Medicare and Social Security were good for the country:
I know all about that. In the late Twenties, when I was a sophomore at USC, I was a socialist myself—but not when I left. The average college kid idealistically wishes everybody could have ice cream and cake for every meal. But as he gets older and gives more thought to his and his fellow man's responsibilities, he finds that it can't work out that way—that some people just won't carry their load ... I believe in welfare—a welfare work program. I don't think a fella should be able to sit on his backside and receive welfare. I'd like to know why well-educated idiots keep apologizing for lazy and complaining people who think the world owes them a living. I'd like to know why they make excuses for cowards who spit in the faces of the police and then run behind the judicial sob sisters. I can't understand these people who carry placards to save the life of some criminal, yet have no thought for the innocent victim.
Although he enrolled in a cancer vaccine study in an attempt to ward off the disease, Wayne died of stomach cancer on June 11, 1979, at the UCLA Medical Center, and was interred in the Pacific View Memorial Park cemetery in Corona del Mar, Newport Beach. According to his son Patrick and his grandson Matthew Muñoz, a priest in the California Diocese of Orange, he converted to Roman Catholicism shortly before his death. He requested that his tombstone read "Feo, Fuerte y Formal", a Spanish epitaph Wayne described as meaning "ugly, strong, and dignified". The grave, which went unmarked for 20 years, is now marked with a quotation from his controversial 1971 Playboy interview: "Tomorrow is the most important thing in life. Comes into us at midnight very clean. It's perfect when it arrives and it puts itself in our hands. It hopes we've learned something from yesterday."
Among the cast and crew who filmed the 1956 film The Conqueror on location near St. George, Utah, 91 developed some form of cancer at various times, including stars Wayne, Susan Hayward, and Agnes Moorehead, and director Dick Powell. The film was shot in southwestern Utah, east of and generally downwind from the site of recent U.S. Government nuclear weapons tests in southeastern Nevada. Many contend that radioactive fallout from these tests contaminated the film location and poisoned the film crew working there. Despite the suggestion that Wayne's 1964 lung cancer and his 1979 stomach cancer resulted from nuclear contamination, he believed his lung cancer to have been a result of his six-packs-a-day cigarette habit.
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