Alla Demidova est une Actrice Russe née le 29 septembre 1936 à Moscou (Russie)
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Nom de naissance Alla Sergeyevna DemidovaNationalité RussieNaissance 29 septembre 1936
(85 ans) à Moscou (Russie
Alla Sergeyevna Demidova (Russian: А́лла Серге́евна Деми́дова; b. 29 September 1936, Moscow) is a Russian actress internationally acclaimed for the tragic parts in innovative plays staged by Yuri Lyubimov in the Taganka Theatre. She was awarded the USSR State Prize in 1977.
Alla Demidova was born on 29 September 1936 in Zamoskvorechye, Moscow, and spent her early years at the Osipenko (now Sadovnicheskaya) Street. Her father Sergey Alekseevich Demidov, heir to the legendary Russian industrialists' family, was jailed in 1932 but soon got acquitted. In 1941 he joined the Red Army as a volunteer and was killed in 1944 in the battle at Warsaw. Alla's mother, Aleksandra Dmitrievna Demidova (née Kharchenko) was working at the Economy department of the Moscow University (later at its Cybernetics and economic programming section) Mother and daughter spent the War years in Vladimir, to the East of Moscow. "I've received too little love from people around me in those early years to remember them fondly," the actress later wrote. At the age of five, when asked about her ambitions, she started to mention 'becoming greatactress' (perceiving two words as a single one). The girl debuted as an actress on her school's amateur stage, enjoying her first taste of success.
While still at school, Demidova joined the well-known Moscow actress T. Schekin-Krotova' courses to study drama. After the graduation she tried to join the prestigious Shchukin Theatrical School but failed, flawed being the only reason, and enrolled into the Moscow University's Economy faculty. In 1959, after the graduation, she started teaching political economy at the University's Philosophy faculy. Before that, as a third year student, she joined the MGU Students' Theater, led first by Igor Lipsky, then Rolan Bykov. It was under the latter's guidance that in 1958 Demidova made her stage debut as Lida Petrusova in Such Kind of Love (Takaya lyubov), a successful adaptation of Pavel Kohout's play. "Subtleness in which she managed to bring out her heroine's repressed sufferings later became Demidova's trademark feature which she was continuously going back to and developing in the course of her career," according to one biography. Having joined the Shchukin School on the second attempt, Demidova started studying at the class of actress Anna Orochko, who loked to experiment with her young protégé, so far as to even suggest that she play Hamlet. While still studying at the Shchukun School, Demidova performed in Vakhtangov Theatre's production of Death of Gods (Gibel bogov), cast as a bikini-clad showgirl, in Princess Turandot (a slave girl) and in A Cooking Girl ("Stryapukha"). It was then that she's been noticed for the first time by the French theatre specialist Jean Vilar who, after having watched her fencing in a gymnasium, informally invited her to join the Theatre National Populaire. On the Shchukin stage she's had the leading role in Aleksander Afinogenov's Distant Things (Dalyokoye), played Mrs. Moon in The Scandalous Affair of Mr. Kettle and Mrs. Moon (after John Priestley's play of the same name) and Madame Frisette in Frisette (Eugene Marin Labiche's adaptation. In 1957 Demidova debuted on screen in the director Zakhar Agranenko's The Leningrad Symphony. That was followed by Nine Years of One Year (director Mikhail Romm, 1961), What's a Relativity Theory? (Semyon Raitburg, 1963) and Komask (1965), three films she remembered as her "reconnaissance raid".
In 1964 Demidova graduated from Shchukin School, having presented as her diploma work the role of Mrs. Young in Yuri Lyubimov's adaptation of Bertholt Brecht's The Good Person of Szechwan. "Her role was not the leading one there but that didn't matter. The effect of her physical presence was enormous," colleague Boris Khmelnitsky later remembered. Dissatisfied with the way she's been treated by the director, though, the young actress tried to return to the Vaktangov's (and failed), spent several months at the Mayakovsky Theatre again without any role to cling to, and in the end of 1964 returned to Taganka where she's been employed regularly but mostly in insubstantial roles, quite for some time. The reason for Lyubimov's mistrust might have been the fact that in her first leading role in Taganka, that of Vera in A Hero of Our Time, Demidova, admittedly, "failed miserably", proving to be nothing but "a young theater school graduate facing a giant, Lermontov". Several years of hard work in mass scenes and pantomimes followed as a kind of reprimand. The master-and-servant type of relationship that formed between the theater director and the actress in those early days never changed, even after Demidova has become a movie star.
1966 – 1979
The leading role in Igor Talankin's Daylight Stars (Dnevnye zvyozdy, 1966), that of Olga Berggolts, proved to be the starting point of Demidova's film career. "The part was very close to my heart and artistically intriguing too. I had to play not just an ordinary woman, but a poet, which involved exploring the process of poetry's getting born, and also finding this thin balance between my heroine's every day tribulations and the film's sublime philosophical essence," she explained, speaking to the Yunost magazine in 1968. This success, though, did little to dispel Demidova's intrinsic mistrust in the cinema as an art form. "What a pity such a full-bloodied role had been given to me in film, not on in theater," she complained in the same interview.
1968, when six of her films came out, was the year of Demidova's major breakthrough. Some of her earlier parts (like that in Vladimir Basov's War-time thriller Shield and Sword) Demidova later dismissed as unworthy of attention, others seemed to her curious (a comissar in Two Comrades Were Serving). More significant for her was the SR party activist Maria Spiridonova's character in 6 July (1968), a very much 'against-the-grain' kind of person, the actress was in many ways identifying herself with. I've never been a dissident, I've always shied politics, may be because my grandmother was staroobryadka. Still for some reason 1917 always seemed to me a catastrophe and never in my life have I dabbled in politics – either in reality, or in films. Spiridonova, of course, was an exception, but then again, she was Lenin's opponent. –
Demidova's performance as Liza Protasova in The Living Corpse (1968) was praised by critics, even if Vladimir Vengerov's film itself was not. In 1969 she appeared in Igor Talankin's Tchaikovsky as Yulia von Mekk.
1968 was also the year Demidova started to get major roles in Taganka, Elmyra in Molière's Tartuffe being the first in the line. Much lauded was Demidova's pani Bozhentska in the adaptation of Jerzy Stawinski's The Rush Hour (the role she soon came to detest and refused to do anything with). 'Outstanding' was the word that's been often used in regards her Gertrude next to Vladimir Vysotsky's Hamlet' (1971). "In the play which was both phantasmagoric and strikingly real, Demidova artfully portrayed a woman, misguided rather than vile," critic Raisa Benyash wrote. Critics started to speak of the acresses' unique ability to approach the new, never known before dimensions in classics, bringing new light and shade to the well known characters of Russian theater's past. All the while Demidova felt she'd been underrated and ignored at Taganka; despite theater critics' later assertions that it was Lyubimov who 'discovered' her, she herself insisted to have been totally out of place in the theatre and classified herself as a much more Efros-type actress. This was later corroborrated by her colleagues. "She definitely wasn't what one may call a director's favourite and her life in Taganka was difficult. She managed to retain her individuality and refine her distinctive style only by using all of her inner strength, intelligence and talent," wrote Veniamin Smekhov.
The results of the 'Gertrude' triumph were ambivalent. On the one hand, film directors started pestering Demidova with countless scenarios, on the other, (as one critic put it years later) "having realized that in depicting intellectual reflection and spiritual struggle she just had no equal they were all trying to exploit most obvious aspects of her rather unusual image." Nevertheless, much furor was caused by Demidova as Arkadina in Yuli Karasik's Seagull 1970 movie (based on Anton Chekhov's classic), where the actress, making her character going through unexpected metamorphoses, totally outplayed her colleagues. Demidova excelled as Lesia Ukrainka in I'm Going to You (Idu k tebe, 1971, directed by Nicolay Maschenko). Her Anne Stanton (in All The King's Men, 1971) won praises from Oleg Efremov, who reportedly remarked: "Of all our actresses, Demidova's the one who's got the liveliest eyes"). Demidova played Lizaveta Pavlovna in Andrey Tarkovsky's The Mirror (1974), then the Magic woman in Irina Povolotskaya's Scarlet Flower (Alenky tsvetotchek, 1977), a fairytale (the one and only in her film career) which she "single-handedly transformed into a fable," according to critic A.Smolyakov, followed by the Duchess of Marlborough in Yuly Karasik's The Glass of Water (1979), facing Kirill Lavrov's Henry of Bolingbroke.
Meanwhile Yuri Lyubimov, invited to direct at Milan's La Scala, left Taganka for Anatoly Efros for a while to take his place. The latter chose to stage The Cherry Orchard, aiming from the outset to come up with something drastically different from the old-fashioned 'textbook Moscow Art Theater version of the Chekhov's classic. Demidova as a 'modernist' (for some, predictably, – 'decadent') Ranevskaya aesthetically re-vamped the familiar character of the classic Russian theater, making tragedy and eccentricity, sentimentalism and irony go hand in hand. Critics were divided in their assessment of Efros' concept and the quality of its overall realization, but even detractors agreed that what saved the experiment from flopping was Demidova with her powerful performance, supported by Vladimir Vysotsky as Lopatin. "If there has been any harmony achieved, it was not her-with-others, but her with the Orchard's truly poetic self," critic Emma Polotskaya remarked. "Initially the [Chekhov's] heroine for me was totally alien. As time went by, I was beginning to see myself as 'me-as-Ranevskaya' more and more", Demidova remarked years later. One of the Efros interpretation's harshest critics was Lyubimov who described Demidova's performance as 'mannered' and 'grotesque'. Tellingly, several years later he asked Demidova to 'repeat her Ranevskaya algorithm' in the final act of Chekhov's Three Sisters (1981) where her Masha, ironic and aloof, had to burst out into disturbing overemotionalism in the end. Among Demidova's other roles in Taganka of the time were Raskolnikov's mother in Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment (1979) and Marina Mnishek in Pushkin's Boris Godunov (1982), the latter banned by the Ministry of Culture's special decree (and premiered on 12 June 1988).
Demidova and Vysotsky
In the late 1970s Demidova and Vysotsky, both irritated by Lyubimov's artistic dictatorship, gravitated into a strong tandem (where, as one critic put it, "ice and fire clashed") to experiment with ideas of their own. "We both realized that a massive, colourful theatrical show was becoming old-fashioned and the new era of a private, chamber theater was approaching," Demidova recalled. Having in mind exclusively Vysotsky and Demidova 'solo project', Vitaly Vulf translated into Russian Tennessee Williams' Out Cry, a play for two characters, brother and sister. Lyubimov saw it as nothing more that an 'ego act' (seeing as the original had been written for a couple of Broadway stars) and the fellow Taganka actors apparently took their bosses' side. "As the first Act was ready, we've advertised it locally, inviting everybody to come and see. Only two people showed up: [stage designer] David Borovsky and his friend. What would you expect: it's... theatre!" Demidova later bitterly remarked. The experiment was shelved, along with another project, their own version of Jean Racine's Phaedra. Months later Vysotsky died. "It was only after he was gone that I suddenly realized how much he'd meant to me as a partner... He was an exceptional actor, especially in his last years, the one who reigned the audience by literally magnetizing the air around him," she later remembered.
In the early 1980s Demidova started to stage her own recital shows, each produced as a miniature theatrical play. Some, shown by the Soviet TV, became popular. In Pushkin's Queen of Spades (directed by Igor Maslennikov, 1982) she not just recited the poem but was acting it too, taking upon herself one character after another, "casting a shade of Silver Age over the whole of this three cards' story," as one critic wrote. Successful was Demidova's collaboration with Anatoly Vasilyev in a film The Stone Guest and Other Poems which involved some role-juggling too. On stage she recited Anna Akhmatova (Requiem, Poem Without a Hero), Pushkin, Ivan Bunin, assorted Silver Age poets. Her own act's stage director, Demidova was now reviewed as an innovator, a star in a genre of her own. As a major influence she cited Giorgio Strehler, then a Theatre of Nations director, who in May 1987 invited Efros with two of his shows (At the Bottom and Cherry Orchard) to Milan. "It was Strehler who's shaped my whole vision of the way those solo performances should be staged and designed... An easel, a candle, some music, synchronized translation – those were the elements of his original stage concept which I've made my own," Demidova remembered. "Just music and me, totally alienated from the audience: that was the idea that since then remained unchanged," she said in a 2010 interview. It was in her solo stage projects that Demidova managed finally to fulfil what's been left of her potential that Lyubimov and Efros, two renown Russian theater directors failed to notice and use, critic Tatyana Moskvina opined.
After Lyubimov's departure to the West, Demidova gradually withdrew from Taganka. In 1986 Efros revived the Cherry Orchard production, casting Demidova in the leading role. It's won the 1st Prize at BITEF, then had a successful run in Paris, in the wake of its director's death. With Lyubimov coming back, Demidova returned to Taganka where she successfully performed as Marina Mnishek (Boris Godunov, 1988) and Donna Anna (Feast Amidst Plague, 1989), the two decidedly tragic characters. In 1988 Alla Demidova joined forces with theatre director Roman Viktyuk who's staged Marina Tsvetayeva's Phaedra, the actress's great enthusiasm towards that role serving as the major catalyst. "The result was intriguing, it just never fitted into Taganka's repertoire. We were invited to festivals, toured a lot but were being accused by Lyubimov for allegedly exploiting 'his brand'. Grabbing the first opportunity, I just bought the whole production off: costumes, decorations and everything, never sure what to do with this purchase," Demidova remembered. In the Modern History of the Soviet and Russian Cinema Phaedra was described as the best Soviet theatre production of the 1980s and arguably Viktyuk's most serious work.
The role of Electra (in Sophocles' Electra) which premiered in Athens, Greece, in 1992, happened to be Demidova's final one under Lyubimov. The production itself was short-lived, but the actress's performance again was praised (notably, by Literaturnaya Gazeta. As the major conflict broke out in the theatre and Taganka split into two, Demidova, grudges of the past aside, went to support Lyubimov. "I just coulndn't understand how could a pupil betray their master," she later explained. Once it became obvious the confrontation started to seriously undermine the quality of Taganka's work, Demidova left it for good.
In 1992 Demidova's own The A Theater opened – with the production of Phaedra. In 1993 came out Quartet, a play by Heiner Mueller based on de Laclos' Dangerous Liaisons novel, produced by Demidova in collaboration with the Greek director Theodore Tersopulos. Quartet, which for the first time introduced the Russian audiences to the work of a German playwright, according to the theatre critic A.Smolyakov, proved to be one of the best theatrical premieres in Russia that year. The A Theater's next work (again with Tersopulos), Mueller's version of Medea, premiered on 29 April 1996; Russian critics saw it as an attempt to create the new style of contemporary tragedy – by "breaking through origins into an arch-myth, buried in human subconscious". Working with Tersopulos has changed Demidova's perception of theater: "After Electra, Phaedra and Medea all things that went before them tasted insipid," she confessed. Finally, in 2001 Hamlet the Master Class, the A Theatre and the Greek Attis theatre's joint production, came out. Premiered at a Moscow Theatrical Olympiad, it featured Demidova in the roles of Hamlet (her early tutor Anna Orochko's idea revived), as well as Gertrude and Ophelia.
In the 1990s Demidova appeared in several films, playing Lebyadkina (The Obsessed, 1992), Miss Minchin (Little Princess, 1997) and Elizaveta Alekseevna (Unseen Traveller, 1998). For two years she was teaching at the Shchukin Theatre School (refusing to be paid, "so as not to feel tied up by it") but left disappointed with young pupils' attitude. Now firmly under the impression that theatre in Russia, as well as abroad, was in crisis, Demidova quit the stage altogether. "In the past several years I came to realize: what I do like, my audience doesn't, and so I've left theater for good," she explained in an interview.
2000 – present
In 2000–2002 Demidova appeared on screen twice, first as Lora Lyons (in Remembering Sherlock Holmes, a Russian TV serial) then as mad Elsa (in Letters to Elsa, a film based on Vladimir Vysotsky's son Arkady's screenplay). In Boris Blank's Death of Tairov (2004) Demidova played Alisa Koonen. "That was the role I really longed for, being really intrigued by this character, but the film proved to be devoid of dramatic scenes, and the script was bizarre, to put it mildly. Nevertheless, I managed to achieve some things: visual and aural similarity, by reproducing her voice and plastics – people who remembered her assured me as much," she later commented. Interestingly, Yuri Lyubimov was supposed to be cast as Tairov, but fell ill, got hospitalised and Mikhail Kozakov came in, rather a disappointing substitution, at least as Demidova saw it. For her role in Kira Muratova's The Tuner (2005) Demidova received the Nika Award and the Golden Eagle Award for Best Actress, having portrayed a kind of 'modern day Ranevskaya', as she put it, a pure and pathetic post-Chekhov character. After two more films – Igor Maslennikov's Russian Money (2006, after Alexander Ostrovsky) where she played Murzavetskaya, and S. Kostin's historical documentary Waiting for the Empress (about Maria Fyodorovna) – Demidova declared she't lost all interest in being filmed. All through the 2000s she was staging her poetry recitals regularly (performing in Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Israel) and continued to do so in the early 2010s.
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^ Podluznhaya, Alla. "Our profession is scrambling up a smooth wooden plane". www.day.kiev.ua. Retrieved 18 May 2010.
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^ Dolin, Anton. Alla Demidova in The Tuner. www.demidova.ru.
^ Bykov, Dmitry (28 September – 4 October 2006). "To Play for Dionis". Rossiya (newspaper). Retrieved 17 May 2010.
^ Kutlovskaya, Yelena (23 May 2008). "Talent Vs. Character.". Nezavisimaya Gazeta. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
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